Difference between ethiopian orthodox and catholic

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Difference between ethiopian orthodox and catholic

It holds the Christological doctrine of the Council of Chalcedon and accepts the universal jurisdiction of the Pope. Ge'eza Semitic language fallen out of daily use several centuries ago, is the liturgical language of the Ethiopian Catholic Church. The Church's liturgy is based on that of the Coptic Church.

The term "Ethiopic Catholic Church", which was synonymous with "Ethiopian Catholic Church" until Januarywhen the Eritrean Catholic Church was established, can be applied to either church or to both jointly, since their liturgy is celebrated in the Ethiopic or Ge'ez language.

The Portuguese voyages of discovery opened the way for direct contacts between the Catholic Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. In the 14th century, Catholic missionaries arrived in Ethiopia. Jesuit missionaries came with the Portuguese to Ethiopia.

These missionaries focused their conversion activities with the country's governing class including the Emperor to have the Ethiopian Orthodox Church unite with the Catholic Church. InSusenyos made Catholicism the state religion. A formal union in was declared when Patriarch Mendes came to the country.

With Mendes trying to Latinize the Ethiopian church, Susenyos used force to impose the latinization.

What is the difference between the Orthodox and Catholic churches?

Public backlash resulted. InSusenyos died. His successor Fasilides in removed Mendes from the country, ended the union with Rome and removed or killed the remaining missionaries. For the next years, Ethiopia was closed to Catholic Missions. InItalian Lazarists and Capuchins resumed, albeit within certain limitations imposed due to strong public opposition. That same year, Justin de Jacobis was appointed first Prefect Apostolic of Abyssinia and entrusted with the foundation of Catholic missions in that country.

After laboring with great success in Abyssinia for eight years, he was appointed titular Bishop of Nilopolis inand shortly afterwards Vicar Apostolic of Abyssiniabut he refused the episcopal dignity until it was finally forced upon him in Stephen's Church, behind St. Peter's Basilicaas the designated church for the College.

Ethiopian Catholic Church

The Latin Church had become established in the south of Ethiopia in areas that had not been Christian and that were incorporated into the modern country only at the end of the 19th century. The Italian occupation of Ethiopia in gave rise to an increase in the number of Latin-Church jurisdictions, but the expulsion of foreign missionaries at the end of the Second World War meant that the Ethiopic Rite clergy had to take responsibility for areas thus denuded of Catholic clergy. Accordingly, inthe Ethiopic Rite Apostolic Exarchate of Addis Ababa was established, and the ordinariate for Eritrea was elevated to the rank of exarchate.

Ten years later, on February 20,an Ethiopic ecclesiastical province was established, with Addis Ababa as the Metropolitan See [2] and Asmara in Eritrea and Adigrat in Ethiopia as suffragan eparchies. Intwo new eparchies, Barentu and Kerenwere established in Eritrea, [4] and the Latin-Church apostolic vicariate was abolished.

Eritrea thus became the only country where all Catholics, whatever Church of their canonical ascription, belong to an Eastern Catholic jurisdiction. There are also Latin Church jurisdictions in the south of Ethiopia, none of them raised to the rank of diocese. Eight are apostolic vicariates and one is an apostolic prefecture.

There are four eparchies bishoprics in the country: [8].A table showing the differences and similarities between the three great Christian traditions. T he table below aims to given an outline of some of the key issues in Christian belief and how the three traditions view these issues. We have tried to state what might be called the 'representative' view of each tradition, though there are obviously differing views within each of them e.

The links under the More information section should be consulted for the definitive positions. In addition, our companion websites have further information on the three Christian traditions:. With thanks to Father Gregory Hallam for his assistance. PDF Version. Further details on the Eucharist are given in the Five views of the Eucharist page. Print this page.

Top of page. Comparison Table A table showing the differences and similarities between the three great Christian traditions.

In addition, our companion websites have further information on the three Christian traditions: Orthodox Protestant Roman Catholic With thanks to Father Gregory Hallam for his assistance. This is an important part of Orthodox belief and ensures continuity with the church that Christ founded. With the exception of the Anglicans and some Lutherans, this idea is rejected.

Rather it is important to emphasise continuity of teaching with that of the apostles, rather than a direct line of succession. As in Orthodoxy, this is of vital importance to the church.

There is also some degree of mutual recognition of the validity of Orthodox ordinations. Accept the 39 Old Testament and 27 New Testament books, but also a collection of books not found in the original Hebrew Bible. Protestants reject the deuterocanonicals as not being inspired scripture and term them Apocrypha Greek: 'Hidden Things'.

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Priests and Bishops must be male, but deaconesses are permitted, though the order is dormant. Priests and deacons may marry before ordination but not after.

difference between ethiopian orthodox and catholic

Bishops, on the other hand, must be celibate. The majority of Protestants do not require celibacy as a condition of election to the clergy. Many churches practice female ordination, including those within the Anglican communion, where the issue of female episcopacy is currently being discussed. All clergy are required to be male. Priests and Bishops must also be celibate, with the exception of Eastern Rite Catholics and Anglican married clergy who subsequently convert to Catholicism. These groups are allowed to have married priests.

Commonly termed the 'Mystic Supper' or 'Divine Liturgy' - This makes present Christ's sacrifice and therefore forgiveness of sins is obtained through it. It is also an encounter with the Risen Christ. The Eucharist, like Baptism is only a symbol of grace. The sacrificial nature of the Eucharist is also rejected. The position is similar to the Orthodox. The Eucharist is also known as the 'Holy sacrifice of the Mass'. During the Eucharist, the Priest calls down the Holy Spirit in Greek: epiklesis upon the gifts the bread and the wine.

They then change into the actual body and blood of Christ. The precise way in which this happens is a divine mystery. The bread and wine, being symbols, do not change substance. There are however, a wide variety of views held within Protestantism on this subject e. However, the consecration becomes effective through the Priest, who acts in the person of Christ.

The gifts change completely into Christ's body and blood and this change is termed 'Transubstantiation' i.The difference between orthodox and catholic is in a number of aspects such as the belief of Mary and the acceptance of the pope.

Christianity seems to be divided into the Eastern and Western churches that are referred to as Orthodox and Catholics respectively. Actually, when we say Catholic here, we are referring to the Roman Catholic church. To a casual observer or someone from any other religion, Orthodox and Catholics might appear the same, but there are differences in doctrine and authority that will be highlighted in this article.

The basic beliefs and practices remain the same. It is some minor differences that crept in slowly starting from 5th century AD that led to a great schism in AD.

These differences continue till date even after a thousand of years. Let us take a closer look. Catholic here refers to the Roman Catholic. That is because nowadays Catholic and Roman Catholic has become synonyms. Roman Catholic Church is the church that is headed by a pope.

Pope in Rome is the highest authority and Vatican is the seat of Christianity for the Catholics. However, papal authority is on the wane as though he is still the figurative head in the west. He cannot advise for a change of leadership in any country even if he feels that the government in a country is moving in a direction not desired by the Church. Further, Latin remained the language of the Catholic Church for long. It is only after the second Ecumenical Council that Catholic Church has started to use native language for mass services.

Also, the priests are not allowed to marry in Catholic Church. It was in AD that celibacy was forced upon all priests in Western Church. When you consider some of the beliefs of Catholics, the Catholics believe Mary to be one without original sin and hence appropriate to be the mother of the son of god. Orthodox more specifically refers to the Eastern Orthodox Church, which is a branch of the Catholic Church.

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Pope is not recognized as supreme by the Orthodox. Eastern Orthodox recognizes bishops with archbishop as the highest authority though he is not infallible like the Pope for the Catholics. Also, the Orthodox Church did not accept the Roman language of Latin and preferred using native languages from the start.

Coming to the belief on Mary, the Orthodox Church feels that Mary was ordinary but was chosen to be the mother of Jesus as she had led a virtuous life.I was simply curious to why our Church rejects these books.

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Thank you so much for your wonderful site and your time for reading this! We make this distinction between "commonly" and "formally" because the simple reality is that the modern Eastern Orthodox Church does not possess a formal, universally-approved Biblical canon. Rather, there is some confusion among Eastern Orthodox as to which books properly constitute the canon of the Bible. And, to understand this, you have to understand what "canon" originally referred to and how the canon of the Christian Bible that is, the Biblical canon of the Catholic Church actually came into being in the first place.

The term "canon" means is that a book is approved for reading at the Divine Liturgy -- that is, the Mass. This is what "canon" a Greek word meaning "rule" originally referred to. The "canonical" books were those books which were approved for reading at the Liturgy. Books which were not approved for reading at the Liturgy were called "apocryphal" or "hidden"and so excluded from the Liturgy.

Among the "apocryphal" books, some were considered to be very orthodox and even inspired but still not approved for public reading at the Liturgyand others were considered to be uninspired or to contain errors or even to be outright heretical.

Only the "canonical" books were approved for reading at the Liturgy the Mass.

This is the Difference Between the Catholic and Orthodox Church

Liturgy in the Fourth Century Before the late 4th Century, each city-church had its own, local "canon" of the Bible, and these local canons differed from city-church to city-church some local canons including books which are currently excluded from our present Bible such as 1 Clement to the Corinthians, or the Epistle of Barnabas, or the Book of Enoch, etc.

The reason that city-churches had different local canons is because city-churches had different local Liturgies -- that is, the Liturgy form of worship in the city-church of Rome was different from the Liturgy form of worship in the city-Church of Corinth, or the city-church of Ephesus, or Antioch, or Jerusalem, etc. This included the yearly Liturgical calendarwith different city-churches celebrating different local feast days on any given date.

Since the feast days differed, so did the corresponding readings for those feast days ; and since there were only so many Liturgical readings from so many canonical books that a city-church could have in a given year, this limited the number of books in the local canon of that city-church.

How I Converted to the Tewahedo Faith - Protestant to Orthodox

As the Church entered the 4th Century, there was no such thing as one, universal "Bible" one universal Scriptural canon, which the entire, universal Church shared in common.

Arian Heresy When the Arian heresy ripped the Church apart pitting bishop against bishop, and city-church against city-churchthis created an enormous problem, since you had different bishops Arian vs. Catholic quoting from different books or sets of books in defense of either Arianism or Catholic Trinitarianism. Needless to say, this complicated and prolonged the controversy, and made Arianism much harder to defeat. Well, by the yearwhen the Arian heresy was finally defeated, Pope St.

Damasus of Rome who had been the librarian for the church of Rome prior to becoming Pope took it upon himself to correct this problem, and to guarantee that it would not happen again, by initiating steps for the formation of a universal canon of Scripture which all city-churches would hold in common, which would eliminate any book which even implied Arianism or other condemned heresies.

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Forth Century North Africa Councils To "start the ball rolling" on this, Pope Damasus promoted a Biblical canon which was a synthesis of the canon of the city-church of Rome and that of the city-church of Alexandria --the two leading city-churches of the universal Church.

Damasus then turned this proposed canon over to the bishops of North Africa for analysis and debate. And he did this for four reasons: North Africa was not part of the theology schools of either Alexandria or Antioch, which were the two intellectual factions that had caused the Arian controversy.

North Africa had the most bishops per capita of anywhere in the universal Church at the time, so they would reflect a good sample of universal opinion among the bishops. The North African Church had a traditional custom of meeting in council either at Carthage or at Hippo every two years, which would give them the ability to hash things out effectively; and Many of the North African bishops were renowned scholars, such as St. Augustine of Hippo, who participated in the debate and helped to formulate the canon.

difference between ethiopian orthodox and catholic

So, at both the councils of Hippo and at Carthagethe North African bishops worked out the final canon of the both the Old and New Testaments for the universal Church. This is the present canon of the Catholic Church, which the North Africans then submitted to Rome for final ratification. Now, we're not sure when this final ratification was given, but we do know that, by A.

Innocent I was promoting the so-called "canon of Carthage" throughout the Western Church. Rome would also have sent rescripts of its decison final ratification of the Carthaginian canon to Alexandria, the 2nd See of the universal Church and the primate in the East, with the expectation that Alexandria as Eastern primate would disseminate it throughout the East.The western church was the original Catholic church while the Eastern Church came to be known as Orthodox Church.

The second major division resulted from a Protest in which the Lutheran princes gave in to the diet of spires and the followers of this sect began to be known as the Protestants Wylie 1. The fundamental reasons for the emergence of the Christian sects were the difference in the interpretation of the Christian texts and the manner of conducting the services Walter The authority of church is another point of disagreement between the two denominations.

Furthermore, the rank and the position of Mary are also debated by the two sects. The orthodox believe Mary to be Theotokos, the bearer of god, and emphasize that Mary was a virgin and she is venerated however unlike Catholics the orthodox reject the idea of Immaculate Conception. On the other hand the protestant consider Mary to be a holy woman but they reject the idea of her perpetual virginity.

They claim that the veneration of Mary as done by Orthodox or Catholics is not Biblical in nature Bonagura. The concept of salvation is also different in the two sects. They argue that salvation is available to all people and all humans can potentially manifest signs of a spiritual unity with the Holy Trinity Davies-Stofka.

Although the Protestants also believe in the day of judgment the last day when all the humans will be resurrected but they accentuate that salvation is not just an experience for the afterlife; it is a journey that gradually results into transformation into the likeness of the Christ and filling of the Holy spirit Vial.

Another related point of disagreement is regarding purgatory. The Orthodox acknowledge the existence of an intermediary stage between this life and the afterlife, however the Protestants reject the existence of any such intermediate stage between earth and heavens Vial. Moreover, Icons play a very central role in the Christian Orthodox belief framework to the extent that it is impossible to understand the Orthodox teachings without studying the icons.

Icon is a Greek word meaning Image, and these icons are of sacred personalities including Jesus, Mary and the saints Davies-Stofka. These images take the center spot in the churches and are venerated. Protestants on the contrary do not invoke saints, venerate them or use icons and the most common symbol is the empty cross which could be found in abundance in their churches. To sum up the arguments, although there are only small differences between the two denominations but these small differences have led to a major disagreement and division within the Christian community.

Orthodox and Protestant Christians differ in terms of their beliefs, practices, symbolism and religious understanding. Many of their concepts including that of salvation, position of Mary, authority of church, saint veneration and importance of Apocrypha are markedly different in the two denominations. Orthodox Christianity originated in the 11th century and the Protestantism in the 16th century. The Orthodox Christians consider Mary to be the bearer of god and a virgin.

While the Protestants disagree. The belief of salivation differs significantly. Orthodox Christians have the concept of deification and purgatory while the Protestants reject both. The Orthodox Christians venerate saints and Icons play an important part in their religious belief framework while the Protestants reject both ideas.

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difference between ethiopian orthodox and catholic

Please spread the word. May 10, The two most prolific groups ever to split from the Catholic Church have been the Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches. The two groups left Catholicism more than four centuries apart and for very different reasons.

Differences between the Orthodox and Protestant Christians

Because Protestantism began in the West, dialogue between the two groups has been relatively infrequent until modern times. The Orthodox churches separated from Rome in A. The immediate cause of the split was theological, but the two groups had been developing different cultures and customs through the ages. Once the split occurred, dialogue continued for another years, ending in the 15th century. The Protestant Reformation, on the other hand, was an entirely internal movement within the Roman Catholic Church.

Geographically, Protestantism was coterminous with Catholicism.

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This doctrine is expressed in the early church creeds, such as the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed. There is one area of contention, however. One of Protestantism's core rallying cries was "sola fide," or "faith alone. Orthodox Christians reject the idea that faith can exist alone without good works. They believe faith will always demonstrate itself in love for God and love for others. Faith and morals are intertwined for Orthodox Christians, so much so that one cannot exist without the other.

Orthodox churches observe seven sacraments: baptism, chrismation or confirmation, Holy Eucharist or communion, penance, matrimony, holy orders and Extreme Unction or anointing of the sick.

These are the same seven sacraments the Roman Catholic Church observes, although the two groups differ in their understanding of communion. Orthodox Christians believe that Christ is mystically and spiritually present in the communion bread and wine, while Catholics believe the bread and wine truly but invisibly transform into Christ's body and blood. Orthodox churches also use leavened bread, whereas Western Christians use unleavened bread.

difference between ethiopian orthodox and catholic

Most Protestant groups observe just two sacraments: baptism and communion. Protestants vary in their understanding of communion. Some believe Christ is spiritually present in the elements in a way similar to Orthodox belief. Others believe communion is simply a memorial and that it does not, by itself, necessitate Christ's presence.Ethiopian historiography includes the ancientmedievalearly modernand modern disciplines of recording the history of Ethiopiaincluding both native and foreign sources.

The roots of Ethiopian historical writing can be traced back to the ancient Kingdom of Aksum c. AD — c. These early texts were written in either the Ethiopian Ge'ez script or the Greek alphabetand included a variety of mediums such as manuscripts and epigraphic inscriptions on monumental stelae and obelisks documenting contemporary events.

The writing of history became an established genre in Ethiopian literature during the early Solomonic dynasty — In this period, written histories were usually in the form of royal biographies and dynastic chroniclessupplemented by hagiographic literature and universal histories in the form of annals.

Christian mythology became a linchpin of medieval Ethiopian historiography due to works such as the Orthodox Kebra Nagast. This reinforced the genealogical traditions of Ethiopia's Solomonic dynasty rulerswhich asserted that they were descendants of Solomonthe legendary King of Israel. Ethiopian historiographic literature has been traditionally dominated by Christian theology and the chronology of the Bible. There was also considerable influence from Muslimpagan and foreign elements from within the Horn of Africa and beyond.

Diplomatic ties with Christendom were established in the Roman era under Ethiopia's first Christian king, Ezana of Axumin the 4th century AD, and were renewed in the Late Middle Ages with embassies traveling to and from medieval Europe.

Building on the legacy of ancient Greek and Roman historical writings about Ethiopia, medieval European chroniclers made attempts to describe Ethiopia, its people, and religious faith in connection to the mythical Prester Johnwho was viewed as a potential ally against Islamic powers. Ethiopian history and its peoples were also mentioned in works of medieval Islamic historiography and even Chinese encyclopediastravel literatureand official histories. During the 16th century and onset of the early modern periodmilitary alliances with the Portuguese Empire were made, the Jesuit Catholic missionaries arrived, and prolonged warfare with Islamic foes including the Adal Sultanate and Ottoman Empireas well as with the polytheistic Oromo peoplethreatened the security of the Ethiopian Empire.

These contacts and conflicts inspired works of ethnographyby authors such as the monk and historian Bahreywhich were embedded into the existing historiographic tradition and encouraged a broader view in historical chronicles for Ethiopia's place in the world. Modern Ethiopian historiography was developed locally by native Ethiopians as well as by foreign historians, most notably Hiob Ludolf —the German orientalist who British historian Edward Ullendorff — considered the founder of Ethiopian Studies.

The late 19th and early 20th centuries marked a period where Western historiographic methods were introduced and synthesized with traditionalist practices, embodied by works such as those by Heruy Wolde Selassie — The discipline has since developed new approaches in studying the nation's past and offered criticism of some traditional Semitic -dominated views that have been prevalent, sometimes at the expense of Ethiopia's traditional ties with the Middle East.

Marxist historiography and African studies have also played significant roles in developing the discipline. Since the 20th century, historians have given greater consideration to issues of class, gender, and ethnicity.

Traditions pertaining mainly to other Afroasiatic-speaking populations have also been accorded more importance, with literary, linguistic, and archaeological analyses reshaping the perception of their roles in historical Ethiopian society. Historiography of the 20th century focused largely on the Abyssinian Crisis of and the Second Italo-Ethiopian Warwhereas the Ethiopian victory over the Kingdom of Italy in the Battle of Adwa played a major role in the historiographic literature of these two countries immediately following the First Italo-Ethiopian War.

Writing was introduced to Ethiopia as far back as the 5th century BC with the ancient South Arabian script. The roots of the historiographic tradition in Ethiopia date back to the Aksumite period c.

Written in an autobiographical style, in either the native Ge'ez scriptthe Greek alphabetor both, they are preserved on stelaethronesand obelisks found in a wide geographical span that includes SudanEritreaand Ethiopia.

For instance, 4th-century stelae erected by Ezana of Axum memorialize his achievements in battle and expansion of the realm in the Horn of Africawhile the Monumentum Adulitanum inscribed on a throne in AdulisEritrea, contains descriptions of Kaleb of Axum 's conquests in the Red Sea region during the 6th century, including parts of the Arabian peninsula.

In Roman historiographythe ecclesiastical history of Tyrannius Rufinusa Latin translation and extension of the work of Eusebius dated circaoffers an account of the Christian conversion of Ethiopia labeled as "India ulterior" by the missionary Frumentius of Tyre. Cosmas Indicopleustesa 6th-century Eastern Roman monk and former merchant who wrote the Christian Topography describing the Indian Ocean trade leading all the way to China[11] visited the Aksumite port city of Adulis and included eyewitness accounts of it in his book.

Aside from epigraphy, Aksumite historiography also includes the manuscript textual tradition. Some of the earliest Ethiopian illuminated manuscripts include translations of the Bible into Ge'ez, such as the Garima Gospels that were written between the 4th and 7th centuries and imitated the Byzantine style of manuscript art. The power of the Aksumite Kingdom declined after the 6th century due to the rise of other regional states in the Horn of Africa.

The Scottish travel writer James Bruce — was incredulous about the tale and believed she was simply a Jewish queen. When the forces of Yekuno Amlak r. The most common form of written history sponsored by the Solomonic royal court was the biography of contemporary rulers, who were often lauded by their biographers along with the Solomonic dynasty. The royal biographical genre was established during the reign of Amda Seyon I r.

There are also hagiographies of previous Zagwe dynastic rulers composed during the Solomonic period.


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